James Webb Space Telescope

The JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESOBE (JWST) was named after James E. Webb, NASA Apollo Chief Executive Officer in 2002. It is a joint project managed by NASA and 15 different states.

The JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE (JWST) took a long time to build and test. It is the largest and most powerful telescope to date. JWST was launched on 25 December and will be placed in L2 orbit. L2 orbit is a point far from the Sun, 1.5 million km from Earth. The Space Telescope will move with Earth's gravity and L2 will be in Earth's shadow. Telescope with 18-piece gold-plated mirrors. It needs to be adjusted very finely for it to work like a single large mirror.


By measuring infrared images of giant planetary systems and a simple color image of a composite light beam splitting after passing through a form, it will be possible to determine the ages of the planets. With its sensitive instruments and large mirror, JWST will be able to observe the dust disks where planets are born. It gives hope for how the Solar System was formed and how it developed. It is planned to observe the earliest times when the universe was born billions of years ago. Working like a time machine, it will enable us to learn things we never knew before.


Although JWST weighs half the Hubble Space Telescope, it is larger than Hubble, with a diameter of 6.5 meters and a surface area of ​​25.4 square meters, formed by the combination of 18 hexagonal mirrors coated with beryllium. Its main focus is infrared astronomy. The design focused on the near and mid infrared for three reasons.

1. The visible surfaces of high and redshifted objects are shifted to infrared.
2. Cold objects such as planets emit strong infrared.
3. Inspection of the infrared band from the ground or with Hubble is next to impossible.

Earth's atmosphere makes it difficult to study infrared bands with telescopes from Earth. The presence of compounds such as water, carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere on Earth makes it very difficult to observe from the ground. In Hubble, their mirrors are not cold enough, so they emit infrared light and cannot examine these infrared bands. When JWST enters L2 orbit, it will be 1.5 million km from Earth. Langrange Point, with its full name, is short for L2. Objects near the L2 point orbit the Sun simultaneously with the Earth. In the event of a problem at such a distance, it is impossible to make an instant move. If there is a problem, Nasa considers shaking the Telescope or changing its orbit as a solution.

Sun Shield

The temperature of the telescope must be below -223.2 C in order to make infrared exploration. A sun shield is used in the telescope to block the light and heat coming from the Sun, Earth and Moon.

Each of the layers is as thin as a human hair. It is made of Kapton E, which is in the form of a polyimide coated cover. It is coated with membrane-featured aluminum on both sides and doped silicon is used on the part facing the Sun.

Optical Mirror

The primary mirror is a 6.5 meter diameter gold-plated beryllium reflector with a total area of ​​25.4 m2. The mirror consists of 18 hexagonal parts. Since there is not a spacecraft with enough capacity to put the telescope at full size, they will launch the telescope into space as a single piece and ensure that all parts are gradually unfolded during the launch. Once the NASA telescope is docked in L2 Orbit, it will use precision micromotors for full setup. Since there are no environmental factors in space, it does not need to move.

In addition, there is a three-mirror system for image stabilization.


The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study every stage in the history of our universe, from the first bright flashes after the Big Bang to the formation of solar systems capable of supporting life on planets like Earth.